Category Archives: U.S.A.

Budapest Memorandum – Text from UN.org

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Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances 1994 with Ukraine

 

LETTER DATED 19 DECEMBER 1994 FROM THE REPRESENTATIVE OF THE
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA TO THE CONFERENCE, THE PERMANENT
REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND NORTHERN IRELAND TO
THE CONFERENCE, THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF THE RUSSIAN
FEDERATION TO THE CONFERENCE AND THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE
OF UKRAINE ADDRESSED TO THE SECRETARY-GENERAL OF THE CONFERENCE
TRANSMITTING THE TEXT OF A JOINT DECLARATION OF THE LEADERS OF
UKRAINE, RUSSIA, THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
NORTHERN IRELAND AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, AS WELL AS
A MEMORANDUM ON SECURITY ASSURANCES IN CONNECTION WITH
UKRAINE’S ACCESSION TO THE NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY, SIGNED IN
BUDAPEST ON 5 DECEMBER 1994
We have the honour to forward to you the text of a Joint Declaration of
the Leaders of Ukraine, Russia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, as well as a Memorandum on
Security Assurances in Connection with Ukraine’s Accession to the
Non-Proliferation Treaty, signed in Budapest on 5 December 1994.
Could you please take the appropriate steps to register these documents
as official documents of the Conference on Disarmament, and to have them
distributed to all member delegations and non-member States participating in
the work of the Conference.

(Signed) Stephen J. Ledogar
Ambassador
United States Representative
to the Conference  on Disarmament
(Signed) Sir Michael C.S. Weston
Ambassador
Permanent Representative
of the United Kingdom
to the Conference  on Disarmament

 

(Signed) Olexander Slipchenko
Ambassador
Permanent Representative
of Ukraine
Head of Delegation

(Signed) Grigori V. Berdennikov
Ambassador
Permanent Representative
of the Russian Federation
to the Conference  on Disarmament

 

Budapest Memorandum – Page 2

Joint Declaration of the Leaders
of Ukraine, Russia, The United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland,
and the United States of America

 

The Leaders of Ukraine, Russia, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland, and the United States of America met during the summit meeting of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

The leaders discussed the evolution of European security architecture. They
underscored their determination to support the increasingly strong tendencies toward
the formation of security based on political partnership, and to cooperate in the further
development of a security system which embraces all the CSCE states, This will involve
the evolution – given the new realities of transatlantic and regional mechanisms of
security in a manner that enhances the security and stability of all CSCE states.

They are committed to continuing the process of building political, military, and
economic security in an undivided Europe, in which integration, openness for
participation, and transparency are characteristic.

The leaders confirmed that CSCE commitments in the area of human rights,
economics, and security represent the cornerstone of the common European security
space, and that they help ensure that countries and peoples in this space are not
subjected further to the threat of military force or other undesirable consequences of
aggressive nationalism and chauvinism.

They noted that the historical changes in the world, including the end of the
confrontation between blocs of the “cold war”, create favorable conditions for the
further strengthening of security and stability on the European continent and for deep
reductions in nuclear forces.

In this regard, the leaders discussed the implementation of the Trilateral
statement of January 14, 1994. They noted progress in the implementation of this
Statement.

The leaders also confirmed that an important contribution to the broader process
of strengthening security and stability is also made by such agreements as the Treaty on
Conventional Forces in Europe, the Open Skies Treaty, and confidence and security
building measures.

Budapest Memorandum – PAGE  3 

 

CID/1285
page 3

MEMORANDUM ON SECURITY ASSURANCES IN CONNECTION WITH
UKRAINE’S ACCESSION TO THE NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY

The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, the United States of America, and Ukraine,

Welcoming the accession of Ukraine to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon state,

Taking into account the commitment of Ukraine to eliminate all nuclear weapons
from its territory within a specified period of time,

Noting the changes in the world-wide security situation, including the end of the
Cold War, which have brought about conditions for deep reductions in nuclear forces,

Confirm the following:

1. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in
accordance with the principles of the CSCE Final Act, to respect the independence and
sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine.

2. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, and the United States of America reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the
threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of
Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in
self-defence or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.

3. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in
accordance with the principles of the CSCE Final Act, to refrain from economic
coercion designed to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by Ukraine of the
rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind.

4. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to seek immediate
United Nations Security Council action to provide assistance to Ukraine, as a non-
nuclear—weapon state party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,
if Ukraine should become a victim of an act of aggression or an object of a threat of
aggression in which nuclear weapons are used.

5. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland, and the United States of America reaffirm, in the case of Ukraine, their
commitment not to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclear-weapon State Party to
the Treaty on the Non—Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, except in the case of an attack

CD/1285 page 4

on themselves, their territories or dependent territories, their armed forces, or their allies, by such a state in association or alliance with a nuclear weapon state.

6. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America, and Ukraine will consult in the event a situation arises which raises a question concerning these commitments.

This Memorandum shall enter into force on the date of its signing and shall be registered pusuant to article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

Done at Budapest on 5 December 1994 in four copies. English, Russian and Ukrainian texts of this Memorandum are equally authentic.

 

FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR UKRAINE FOR THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IREI-.AND FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

 

 

https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G94/652/92/PDF/G9465292.pdf? – original PDF OpenElement

 

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945.

Official web-site UN.ORG, United Nations Headquarters –  New York, NY 10017

United Nations Visitor center – visit.un.org UN Visitor center on Facebook   facebook.com/UNVisitorsCentre

rferl.org/a/ukraine-explainer-budapest-memorandum/

 

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Academic Leftism – David Horowitz. Video

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David Joel Horowitz  is an American conservative writer. He is a founder and current president of the think tank the David Horowitz Freedom Center; editor of the Center’s publication, FrontPage Magazine; and director of Discover the Networks, a website that tracks individuals and groups on the political left. Horowitz founded the organization Students for Academic Freedom to oppose what he believed to be political correctness and leftist orientation in academia.

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Space Apps NYC 2015. Day 2 video . How made business with NASA

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Space Apps NYC 2015 – Day 2 Live Webcast at Microsoft NY, 11 Times Square on April 12, 2015.

Welcome
05:00 — Mike Caprio, Startup Bus, SpaceApps NYC.

Agenda
07:25 — Gabe Perez-Giz, Host of Space Time Show on PBS Digital Studios, SpaceApps NYC Master of Ceremonies.
07:55 — Tara Ruttley, Associate Program Scientist for ISS at NASA — “Hacking Away At Gravity on the ISS- Rethinking our Science Questions”.
40:15 — Deanne Bell, Founder of Future Engineers, “Future Engineers And My Career In Engineering”.
1:05:30 — Cynthia Bouthout, Director of Business Development for Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS), “CASIS: Your Access To The ISS NL”.
1:30:11 –– Cady Coleman, NASA Astronaut
1:37:00 — NASA Panel, “How to work with NASA”.
1:38:06 — Beth Beck, Office of the Chief Information Officer at NASA.
1:40:23 — Eldora Valentine, Communications Officer in the Office of the Chief Information Officer at NASA.
1:41:19 — Jason Duly, Open Innovation Team at NASA, Office of the Chief Information Officer.
2:08:00 — Matthew Borgatti, Lead Scientist at Super Releaser – “Soft Robotics and Spacesuits”.
2:30:30 — Ted Southern, Founder of Final Frontier Design, “How To Run A Space Technology Startup”.
2:57:30 — Emily Rice PhD, Assistant Professor at CUNY College of Staten Island, Research Associate at American Museum of Natural History, “Alien Atmospheres”.
3:18:35 — Andrew Hill Phd, Lead Scientist at CartoDB, “Gaining Insights From Mapping Data”.
3:54:00 — NASA Commercial.
4:34:30 — Project Demos, Presented by Mike Caprio, Alice Ng and David Hochman.
8:03:55 — Judging by SpaceApps NYC panel.
8:15:00 — Closing remarks.

NYC Homepage: http://spaceappsnyc.com/

Global homepage: https://2015.spaceappschallenge.org/

VIDEO SPONSOR: Internet Society New York Chapter – http://isoc-ny.org

NYTECH

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SpaceApps Bootcamp #2 – Hackathon Stories video

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Hackathon Stories: sharing stories about experiences participating in hackathons.  Katey Metzroth, SecondMuse and New York City Next Top Makers
Leslie Birch, Freelance Maker and Blogger for Adafruit Industries. Niki Selken, Parsons School of Design. Olivia Ross, Black Girls CODE

APRIL 10, 2015 – SPACEAPPS DATA BOOTCAMP Civic Hall NYC

NYC Homepage: http://spaceappsnyc.com/

Global homepage: https://2015.spaceappschallenge.org

Manattan Business Club – ManhattanBusinessClub.com

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The Least Free Place in America

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Question: Which American institution—one that prides itself on being open, democratic, and diverse—punishes its members severely for offering unpopular opinions, while it offers them a very narrow, limited worldview? Answer: Universities. Once the vanguard of open debate and free speech, colleges have become a place where alternative thinking goes to die. Students who speak out on behalf of traditional American ideals, unfortunately, are often silenced by college administrators. Learn how the college campus, a place that should be an intellectual melting pot, has turned into anything but, violating the rights of those who have alternate opinions.

Lecturer: Greg Lukianoff, President at The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education.

Greg Lukianoff is the president of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE).  Before joining FIRE, Lukianoff worked for the American Civil Liberties Union of Northern California, the Organization for Aid to Refugees, and the EnvironMentors Project.

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Interview with Ruth Gruber for “The Great Depression”… About Hitler and Germany

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Go home and scream ! About traveling to Fascist Germany, about american Jews idealism before WW2 , Julius Striker, Kristal night, antisemitism and shtetls. Was Bushwick Avenue stronghold for Germans nazy in America ? NYU and traditions of anti semitism in New York.
The beginning of antisemitism in USA. Original video with Ruth Gruber

Unique among cultural institutions that collect moving image and sound media, Washington University Libraries’ Film & Media Archive

Ruth Gruber, a photojournalist and author who documented Stalin’s gulags, life in Nazi Germany and the plight of Jewish refugees intercepted by the British on the infamous passage of the Exodus to Palestine in 1947, died on Thursday at her home in Manhattan. She was 105.

Her son, David Michaels, confirmed her death.

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